Cooperative Object Manipulation in Collaborative Virtual Environments

Márcio Serolli PinhoDoug A. BowmanCarla M. D. S. Freitas

Cooperative manipulation refers to the simultaneousmanipulation of a virtual object by multiple users in animmersive virtual environment (VE). In this work, wepresent techniques for cooperative manipulation basedon existing single-user techniques. We discuss methodsof combining simultaneous user actions, based on theseparation of degrees of freedom between two users, andthe awareness tools used to provide the necessaryknowledge of the partner activities during thecooperative interaction process. We also present aframework for supporting the development ofcooperative manipulation techniques, which are basedon rules for combining single user interactiontechniques. Finally, we report an evaluation ofcooperative manipulation scenarios, the resultsindicating that, in certain situations, cooperativemanipulation is more efficient and usable than singleusermanipulation.

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